The Chrysler 2.2L Engine
(This 2.2L engine history is courtesy of Aaron Karpinski and David Zatz. More information, including some interesting photos and diagrams, can be found at Aaron's Web site and at the Allpar Web site. There is some additional interesting 2.2L history at Gary Donovan's Dodge Garage.)
1981This was the first year for the 2.2L engines. They developed 84 bhp at 4,800 rpm and 111 ft-lbs of torque at 2,800 rpm. These engines gained popularity in the Plymouth TC3 Turismo and Dodge Charger 2.2 and were offered in just about every Chrysler four-cylinder car. They were designed as an alternative to the Volkswagon 1.7L and Mitsubishi 2.6L (which produced 180 bhp in turbo form). The 2.2L featured a cast iron block with aluminum pistons, an overhead camshaft, and valves in an aluminum cylinder head. It also used a Holley two-bbl carburetor, water heated intake manifold with oval ports, and a computer that monitored engine functions and controlled the spark advance.
Basically the same as the '81, but with a slightly different intake manifold, the 2.2L still made 84 bhp. An "electronic feedback" Holley two-bbl carburetor (with a computer-controlled mixture solenoid) was used on all vehicles.
A special turbocharged engine was built and used in Dodge's Turbo Charger pace car, a concept car unveiled at the Detroit Auto Show. This engine featured a Garrett/AiResearch turbo, an Audi Quattro intercooler, and a mechanical fuel injection system by Bosch. The engine was built in a joint operation between Chrysler and SVI Engines and made 175 bhp. Chrysler and PPG also made some turbo pace cars.
A Plymouth Reliant was constructed with a prototype Turbo I engine. Nearly identical to the later production Turbo I (see 1984), this engine had a 6,400 rpm redline and produced 142 bhp at 5,600 rpm and 160 ft-lbs of torque at 3,200 rpm.
The first year for the A511 "G" casting, or "445" cylinder head, with raised "D" shaped ports and slightly more air-flow than the older head. This is considered the best head for performance applications. Piston height was raised 0.030" for an increased compression ratio (9.0:1) and produced 94 bhp.
This was also the first year for the Shelby high-output (HO) engine in the Dodge Shelby Charger. This was the same as the standard engine, but with slightly richer carburetor jets, a 0.030"-milled engine block (10:1 CR), a reprogrammed computer with knock sensor, realigned camshaft, and a chrome valve cover. These changes resulted in 107 bhp.
The A525 five-speed transmission replaced the four-speed in most models, except some Rampage and Scamp pickups.
The standard engine developed 96 bhp at 5,200 rpm. The HO engine produced 110 bhp and was offered in the Dodge Omni GLH.
"Performance" gearing (3.22:1) was available on two-door Chargers and Turismos with auto transmissions.
Most Dodge Rampages and some minivans got the "non-feedback" carburetor.
The single-point throttle-body injection (TBI) engine was introduced, producing 99 bhp at 5,600 rpm. This new engine was offered on all vehicles except the L & K bodies.
1984 was the first production year for the Turbo I engine used in the Dodge Daytona Turbo and producing 142 bhp. It featured Bosch multi-point electronic fuel injection and a Garrett/AiResearch turbocharger (0.42 A/R) with the wastegate set to limit boost to 7 psi. The compression ratio lowered to 8.5:1 (by using dished pistons) to reduce detonation.
The new turbo and TBI engines had two engine control computers, one next to the battery (the power module) and one in the passenger side interior kick panel (the logic module).
Chrysler offered the HO engine in any Charger or Turismo with a five-speed manual transmission. A few Omnis and Horizons got them, as well.
The two-bbl intake manifold was changed to a design with a built-in hot water box under it, replacing the previous manifold which had a removable water box.
The Turbo I engine made 146 bhp and featured a computer-controlled wastegate set at 7 psi. There was a "transient boost system" that allowed 9 psi for a short period. The turbo engine became standard in the Shelby Charger and optional in the Omni GLH.
Chrysler made a 16-valve DOHC version of the turbo 2.2L that was designed for use in their 4x4 Dodge Daytona project. These engines were actually slated for production in turbo and regular fuel-injected form, but only a handful were produced. They featured a Hans Herman 16-valve head, custom intake and exhaust manifolds, a garret turbocharger set at a maximum of 10 psi, and produced 225 bhp without an intercooler. "Shelby" versions produced 340 bhp with a special "knife-edge" crank, ported head with larger valves, a 60 mm throttle body, and 20 psi of boost.
In mid-1985 the head bolt size was changed to 11 mm, connecting rod bolts enlarged, and the engine now used eight crankshaft bolts instead of six.
Chrysler announced they would build a 1.8L derivative of the 2.2L for use in their 1987 cars. It was never produced.
The A515 "fast burn" or "782" cylinder head was introduced, with "swirl port" combustion chambers and notched "fast burn" pistons designed to decrease emissions by more complete burning of the fuel. The new head was used on both turbo and TBI engines, while the carbureted version kept the old head.
The TBI throttle body was manufactured by Holley instead of Bosch, and the TBI engine got a different intake manifold and air cleaner.
The Shelby Omni GLHS was equipped with a prototype Turbo II intercooled engine that produced 174 bhp with a 12 psi boost limit.
This was the first production year for the 2.5L engine, using the same cylinder head as the 2.2L. It had single-point throttle body injection, a taller block, and balance shafts in the oil pan. It produced 100 bhp at 4,800 rpm.
Some Chrysler engineers developed a 2.0L version of the Turbo II that produced over 400 bhp. This engine inspired the Mopar Performance "Super 60" package.
The 2.2L was used in the rear-wheel drive N-body Dakota pickup. A special bell housing, exhaust manifold, and non-feedback 2-bbl carburetor were used. This was the last year for the 2-bbl engines in all vehicles except the Dakota.
The Turbo I engine got a new intake manifold, stayed at 146 bhp, and used a Holley throttle body instead of the Bosch part used in previous years. The MAP sensor moved from the logic module to under the hood.
Shelby converted Turbo I engines to Turbo II induction for use in the Shelby Charger GLHS, Shelby Lancer, and Shelby CSX. The factory production Turbo II was the same as Shelby's, but with a "cross-drilled" block (with coolant passages between cylinder bores), a forged crankshaft, and pistons with floating wrist pins.
The A520 five-speed transmission was used in all cars except the L-bodies.
The 2.2L TBI engines goes down to 93 bhp.
Roller camshafts and rockers were introduced in all 2.2L and 2.5L engines replacing the slider version.
The 2.2L Turbo I stayed at 146 bhp for it's last year. A smaller Mitsubishi turbocharger (replacing the Garrett unit on most engines) was used. The size of the exhaust downpipe mount was increased to four inches.
All engine control was integrated into a single housing called the SMEC (Single Module Engine Controller), replacing the separate power and logic module setup.
Shelby built a prototype CSX with a Lotus-designed DOHC 16-valve cylinder head and a VNT (Variable Nozzle Turbine) turbocharger. Instead of a wastegate, the VNT had moveable stainless steel vanes inside that regulated the amount of exhaust gasses going past the turbine. The prototype made 225 bhp.
A new 2.5L Turbo I replaced the 2.2L version and made 150 bhp. It used a slightly larger Mitsubishi turbocharger and a new "common block," shared with the 2.2L TBI and 2.2L Turbo 2 engines.
The timing sprockets and belt were changed to a round-tooth design to decrease noise.
All turbo engines had the "cross-drilled" block and a larger two-and-a-half-inch downpipe.
Shelby uses the 2.2L Turbo IV (VNT) with an eight-valve cylinder head in the Shelby CSX-VNT. This engine made the same 174 bhp as the Turbo II, but the VNT technology decreased turbo spool-up time and helped eliminate "turbo lag."
A DOHC 16-valve cylinder head by Maserati was used on a 2.2L turbo engine in Chrysler's TC by Maserati, a two-seater hardtop/convertible similar to a LeBaron.
This was the last year for the 2.2L Turbo II engine.
The 2.5L TBI engine produced 100 bhp.
The SMEC was replaced by the SBEC (Single Board Engine Controller).
Balance shafts became standard on all engines except the 2.5L in the Dodge Dakota.
Water pump pulley mounting flange was enlarged.
The Turbo IV (VNT) engine became factory production.
The 2.2L Turbo III engine was used in the Dodge Spirit R/T and IROC Daytona. It featured a Lotus-designed DOHC 16-valve cylinder head, a Garrett turbocharger, and an intercooler, and made 224 bhp.
The "high-torque" 2.5L Turbo I was introduced for use with automatic transmissions.
This was the last year for the 2.2L Turbo I and Turbo IV engines.
The 2.5L TBI engine remained at 100 bhp.
A new 2.5L MPI (Multi-Port Injection) engine was offered in Mexico and on "flex-fuel" vehicles producing 106 bhp.
This was the last year for the 2.2L Turbo III engine.
The 2.5L MPI engine went down to 103 bhp.
This was the final year for the 2.2L and 2.5L engines in North America. The 2.5L TBI still produced 100 bhp, and the 2.2L TBI produced 92 bhp. The 2.2L and 2.5L engines were replaced by the 2.0L and 2.4L engines developed for the Neon.
According to Peter Badore, a former Chrysler employee, Chrysler licensed First Auto Works (FAW) of Changchun, People's Republic of China, to build the 2.2L for the Chinese market. FAW began production in 1990, and the engine was still in production there as of July 2000.
|back to Shelby CSX History|